Experimental and theoretical studies have been carried out relevant to the structural, lattice electronic, magnetic and superconducting properties of synthetic metals prepared by intercalating graphite. New synthesis methods have been developed for preparing magnetic transition metal chloride and potassium-hydrogen graphite interaction compounds. The use of ion implantation to enhance intercalation has been explored and promising results have been obtained. Structural studies using high resolution x-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy have been applied to study two-dimensional structural phase transitions such as the commensurate to incommensurate stripe phase transition in bromine intercalated graphite and the commensurate to glass phase transition in antimony pentachloride intercalated graphite. The construction of a Raman microprobe allows study of the spatial homogeneity (to 2 micron resolution) of the staging in specific intercalted graphite samples. Electrical and thermal transport studies have been carried out, providing new information on the dominant scattering mechanisms. The high field magnetoresistance anomaly in graphite identified with a charge density wave has been further explored with particular emphasis given to the role of impurities in pair breaking phenomena and pulsed electric fields in non-linear non-ohmic effects. Experimental and theoretical studies of two-dimensional magnetic phenomena have been successfully carried out in magnetic intercalation compounds.